Answers: 3 FOURTH EDITION Longman Academic Writing Series PARAGRAPHS TO ESSAYS Teacher’s Manual






A. 1. There was a terrible earthquake in Haiti on Tuesday, January 12, 2010.

2. Earthquake victims received help from famous people such as Bill Clinton.

3. There was also a lot of support from Hollywood actors such as Sean Penn.

4. The United Nations is an international organization with headquarters in New York city.

5. The UN can be seen in one of my favorite movies, North by Northwest.

6. Next semester, I will take English, math, and Biology 101.

7. The university that I attend is located in eastern Canada.

8. Many of the students from Africa speak French with the local residents.


B. 1. realize

     2. development

     3. participate

     4. entertain

     5. beauty

     6. organizer


C. 1. I was born on September 21, 1994, in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

2. My father a is performer with the San Juan Symphony. is a violinist.

3. He often travels with the orchestra to Europe and Asia.

4. I am currently a student at the Peabody Conservatory of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.

5. The educate education at this school is excellent. All of the professors are wonderful.

6. My father and mother will come to my graduate graduation next year.



A. 3, 6, 4, 7, 1, 5, 2

The writer’s purpose is to inform.

B. 1. After our last class,

    2. At first,

    3. Then

    4. , and

    5. Finally,

    6. , so

C. 1. I love any celebration that has crowds(,) music(,) and fireworks.

     2. (no commas needed)

     3. Last year(,) it was raining(,) but the celebration was still fantastic.

     4. First(,) there was music and dancing in the street.

     5. There was jazz and rock music(,) so the atmosphere was lively.

     6. At midnight(,) the fireworks started(,) and everyone in the crowd cheered.

     7. After the fireworks(,) my friends and I were hungry(,) so we went to a restaurant.



A.   Check sentences 3, 8

Too specific: 2, 4, 6, 7

Too general: 1, 5

B.    Topic Sentence: Air travel is becoming increasingly expensive.

Main Points: The cost of airplane tickets gets higher every year. More and more airlines require passengers to pay an extra fee to check their luggage. Many airlines no longer serve free meals, so passengers must pay for food.

Topic Sentence: International air travel is often uncomfortable.

Main Points: Travelers are on international flights for long periods of time. Seats are generally small and close together. Time zone changes cause problems.

C.    It takes a lot to be a marathon runner. To begin with, marathoners need great physical and mental strength to complete their 26.2-mile races successfully. Next, running a marathon requires great commitment and discipline. Amateur runners actively begin their long hours of training months before a race. They run three to four days a week. They also work out in the gym and pay close attention to parts of their daily routine such as their diet and their sleep schedule. In addition, marathoners need emotional support. For example, they find a running partner or join a group of runners to help them through the long hours of training. On the day of the race, marathoners feel energized when they hear the loud cheers of their family and friends. It is clear that there are many requirements for marathon success.




A. 1. First of all,

    2. However,

      3. A second kind of shopper

      4. such as

      5. Finally,

      6. All in all,


B. X 2. Text messages are popular. Social networking sites are another common way of communicating.

    X 4. Some people pay their credit card bills by mail(.) Others pay online.

      X 5. The post office has mailing supplies. You can buy envelopes and boxes, for example.

      X 6. The postal worker weighs your package(.) Then you pay the shipping cost.

      X 7. I want to return a pair of pants that I bought online(.) Therefore, I need to go to the post office.


D.   An animal living in a modern zoo enjoys several advantages over an animal in the wild. The first advantage is that a zoo animal is separated from its natural enemies. The animal is protected, so it lives without risk of being attacked. Another advantage is that zoo employees feed the animal regularly. As a result, they will never have to hunt for food or suffer in times when food is hard to find. A third advantage of living in zoos is that veterinarians give the animals regular checkups and any special medical care it needs. In short, zoos have a number of benefits.




A.   2, 5, 7, 4, 6, 3, 1

The audience for the paragraph is students.


B. 1. When students get home from school, they want a quick and easy meal.

    2. If you look in your refrigerator, you should find everything you need.

      3. After you break two fresh eggs into a bowl, mix in salt, pepper, and three tablespoons of milk.     

      4. Add fresh vegetables to the mixture so that you can increase the nutritional value of your eggs.

      5. As the eggs cook, you should push them around gently with a fork.

      6. You will want to make scrambled eggs often because they are delicious and nutritious.


B.    Follow this simple process so that you can improve your English vocabulary. First, keep a small notebook in your pocket, purse, or backpack. You can also use a digital tablet or smart phone if you have one. You simply need a place to write useful words and phrases. Second(,) pay attention to vocabulary. However, don’t write a word or phrase in your notebook, until you hear it at least three times. After you encounter the vocabulary item several times you will know it is important. Next(,) add information to your notebook when you go home each night. Write details that you remember. If you are uncertain about the spelling or meaning of the vocabulary(,) use your dictionary. Finally, review the contents of your vocabulary notebook at the end of each week because it will help you remember the new vocabulary.




       A. Check sentences 2, 3, 5, 6,

No category: 4

No characteristics: 1

       B. 1. which

                2. who

                3. who

                4. where

                5. That

                6. When

                7. that

       C. Walter Gropius, a German-born architect, designed simple “glass box” buildings that they changed the look of cities worldwide. He was particularly influential from 1919 to 1932, when he was the director at the Bauhaus(,) a German school of design. At the Bauhaus, Gropius was a leader of the International Style, which helped reshape architecture. In contrast to the ornately decorated stone structures that were popular in earlier times, Gropius created steel and glass buildings that had straight lines and no decoration. He made another major contribution to the building industry by making designs that builders could mass-produce them. Gropius was also known for his belief in the value of teamwork. In sum, Gropius and his followers transformed cities from Toronto to Tokyo, where their influence can still be seen today.



A. 1. C

       2. E

       3. E

       4. C

       5. E

       6. C

       7. E

       8. C


B. 1. Most soft drinks contain caffeine. Therefore, we should limit the number of soft drinks we have each day.

     2. Soft drinks are also a problem because they contain sugar or other sweeteners.

     3. I am trying to lose weight, so I am eating smaller amounts of food at each meal.

     4. Since a small green salad has fewer calories than a sandwich and potato chips, I eat a salad for lunch every day.

     5. Because of health concerns, shoppers want to buy organic foods, which are produced without the use of human-made chemicals.

     6. Organic farming is time consuming and expensive. Consequently, shoppers pay a high price for organic fruits and vegetables.


C. 1. Public transportation is important because of it allows residents and visitors to move easily around the city.

     2. Parking fees are high in the downtown area, so more commuters have started taking public transportation instead of driving to work.

     3. As a result of overcrowded trains, it is difficult to get a seat during rush hour.

     4. Commuters are angry and upset, for Mayor Lee is requesting increases in ticket prices on buses and subway trains.

     5. Consequently, Mayor Lee says that our buses and trains require costly repairs. Consequently, City Transit System fare increases are necessary in his opinion.

     6. Since Mayor Lee has powerful supporters in city government, he will almost certainly get the fare increases that he wants.



A. 1. F

       2. T

       3. F

       4. T

       5. F

       6. T

       7. T

       8. T

B. 1. Although I have strong computer skills, I do not like taking online classes.

      2. Both online instruction and face-to-face classes are offered at this university.

      3. Students in online courses not only complete reading assignments but also participate in group discussions.

      4. In a classroom, I can get answers to my questions immediately, but I have to wait up to a day to get answers from my online professor.

      5. Students take exams in traditional face-toface classes. Similarly, there are tests in online courses.

      6. Unlike my online courses, my face-to-face classes have given me a chance to make friends.


C. 1. There are both similarities and are differences in writing an academic paragraph and giving a formal speech in class.

      2. Students should give clear examples not only in academic writing but also in formal class presentations. Similarly, both compositions and speeches should have a conclusion.

      3. The ideas in academic paragraphs must be developed both completely and logically just like the ideas in a formal presentation.

      4. You must pay attention to spelling when you are writing, but you have the more difficult problem of correct pronunciation when you are giving a speech.

      5. Signals such as in conclusion and in summary are equally important for academic paragraphs and formal speeches.

      6. I always feel nervous when I have to do a timed writing in class, and I am anxious and fearful when I stand up to give a speech, too.



A. 1. T

      2. F

      3. T

      4. T

      5. F

      6. F

B. Paragraph 1: 2, 3, 1, 4

      Paragraph 2: 2, 1, 4, 3

C. In short(,) Mr. Smith had several qualities of a great teacher. He was well informed about his subject. In addition to knowledge(,) Mr Smith had a great love of history, and his enthusiasm for it rubbed off on his students. Furthermore(,) his lectures were well organized, and he returned papers and tests promptly, even though he taught five different classes. His classes were interesting(,) and he told funny stories to keep even the sleepiest student awake and engaged in learning. Mr. Smith taught more than just history(.) Mr. Smith also taught us to love learning.



A. 1. Although

     2. Despite

     3. However

     4. but

     5. While

     6. In contrast

B. 1. F

      2. F

      3. T

      4. F

      5. T

      6. T

C. 1. The owner of a restaurant on State Street said, “My profits increase by 27% during the summer months”.. ”

     2. “Customers,” he said, “enjoy eating outdoors in the fresh air and sunshine.”

     3. One of the commuters who I interviewed stated, “I want to be able to relax and talk to my friends when I am on the train.

     4. “We are already overworked(,)” explained a conductor on the train. He added, “There is no way to ensure that the train cars remain quiet.”

     5. In his responses to my survey questions, one of my professors wrote, “We desperately need to increase the bandwidth on the school’s wifi.”

     6. “How can I teach effectively without technology?” he asked.

     7. “We expect costs for electricity and cleaning staff to go up approximately 10%(,)” said the president.