According to Encyclopedia Britannica :” Cold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. The Cold War was waged on political, economic, and propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons.”  Did the Cold War really end with the dismantling of USSR and we entered a Post-Cold War era? Or we have been experiencing different versions of Cold War till we reached the 2.0 version known as the New Cold War? Is the New Cold War shifting the balance of power by creating new alliances? How are these alliances impacting our daily lives?

    Historians define the Cold War as the era following World War II (1945-1989) (Mingest, Mckibben, Arreuin-Toft  46). During this 45-year period, the power balance shifted from a unipolar system led by Western Europe to a bipolar system led by the U.S. (Capitalism) and the Soviet Union (Communism). After all, this outcome was expected. The two superpowers had divergent national interests and ideology (Mingest, Mckibben, Arreuin-Toft 42).

    Americans were fighting in a foreign soil and expected a quick repatriation of soldiers to go back to a certain life normality. On the other hand, soviets were at home or what they may call sphere of influence (Mingest, Mckibben, Arreuin-Toft 43). The soviets did not just occupy West Germany. Yet, expanded their influence on the majority of Eastern Europe to protect their western borders. In addition, the Soviets were able to test their first atomic bomb in August 1949. This event led to a major shift in the American future foreign affair policies toward URSS. Policies that continued till the Soviet Union was dismantled in 1992. The United States opted for a containment strategy to tackle USSR aggressive foreign policies (Mingest, Mckibben, Arreuin-Toft 43).

    During the cold war, most nations were forced to pick a side per necessity for financial and military support. The situation led to confrontations in Africa, South America, and Asia. In my opinion, the most serious incident was the Cuban missile crisis. However, the incident opened the door for direct talks between the two superpowers. Both leaders, decided to follow their human instinct to dis-escalate the situation instead on relying in Military leaders. Generals on both sides were ready to lunch a World War III (Mingest, Mckibben, Arreuin-Toft 43). The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 followed by series of events ended the Cold War.

    The post-Cold War era was characterized by a return to a unipolar system. The United States became the main actor in the international scene. The Soviet Union was dismantled and faced huge economical and institutional struggle. I believe the chute of Tito’s regime in Yugoslavia followed by Srebrenica Massacre revived Europe’s old demons. Europe was undergoing new borders reshuffling and the calls for a Unified Europe were of imminent relevance.

    For the United States, the post-Cold War era can be divided into two segments: The War on terrorism and the War on drugs. While the War on Drugs may seem a priori less relevant at world stage. The War on terrorism impacted every nation in the world. All nations were forced to pick a side either with the U.S. or part of the axe of evil as described by George W Bush in his (in) famous speech. (Onion, Sullivan & Mullen, 2019).

    I do not believe we are headed towards a New Cold War because the stakes are too high for the superpowers. The most dominant type of power in our actual era is not military or political power. Yet, the economic power. The world economy is interconnected. For instance, during 2009 economic crisis the chute of housing market in Florida triggered series of events leading to a Mondial economic depression. A clear example of the Butterfly Effect. The priority of actual superpowers, such as U.S. and China are to maintain a growing economy not sparking new wars. The old school thoughts of super military dominance are revolved and most government in powerful nations are led by economist not politicians. The end goal to military spending is to keep a leverage during negotiation not to trigger military conflicts. (Myre, 2019).

    In my opinion, China learned from the Soviet Union mistakes. China shifted from a strict communist system to a hybrid system of socialism and liberalism to benefit of both worlds. For instance, China was clever investing in emerging markets specially in the African Continent.  Building infrastructures and on-site factories to process much need it matière premiere. China was not concerned by the political stability of volatile African regimes. Chinese government mastered the art of making deals with dictatorships and military governments. For the western world it may seem odd. Yet, China offered a certain stability when it comes to foreign policy. After all, China does not have a system of multiple political parties with divergent agendas. When you are dealing with the Chinese government you know what to expect in the long term (Marston, Sep 2019).

    Considering the aggressive economic approach of China not just in the African continent but all over the world. The balance of power shifted toward making new alliances. The need of new alliances was exacerbated by Trump’s Foreign policies imposing tariffs or economic sanctions to many countries. Multiple alliances emerged or were revived: Association of Southeast Asian nations (ASEAN), Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Countries of the Belt and Road initiative (BRI). However, the only exception to the rush towards alliances was the Brexit.                   I doubt the U.S. will be able to balance the impact of the Belt and Road Initiative. China will lead the world economy within the next 20 years that is a fact (Westcott, Jan 2020). This new shift of power will offer emergent nations an opportunity to choose what best fit their interest.

    As a Moroccan citizen. I want my government to choose what investment works best for the future of all Moroccans. The time of imposed directives from former colonial powers has resumed. Today, nations do not need to limit their partnership to one ally. Yet, form partnership in each sector (military, economy, education…). We are in an open market where we can pick and choose.

    For instance, I am closely following news coming from Kenitra my hometown in Morocco. The creation of a free trade zone for auto manufacturers attracted investors from Japan, China, The U.S., Canada, and Europe. Each factory produces parts for cars exported to Africa and Easter Europe.

    It is clear four years of Trump’s policies stressed the need for new alliances and diminished U.S presence in the international scene. Yet, I am confident that under Biden Administration. The U.S. will form a stronger alliance with Canada and Mexico in North America. Strengthen presence in Asia by supporting (ASEAN) and re-in force the relation with EU. I also hope that someone will send the Biden Administration wakeup calls to emphasize the importance of emergent African markets.




"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL Purdue U Writing Lab. Accessed 18 Jan. 2021.

Ben Westcott, There's talk of a new Cold War. But China is not the Soviet Union. CNN, Jan 3, 2020, https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/02/asia/us-china-cold-war-intl-hnk/index.html. Accessed 18 Jan. 2021.

The Information Architects of Encyclopaedia BritannicaVeenu Setia, and World Data Editors. Cold War,Britannica, July 20, 1998 , https://www.britannica.com/event/Cold-War. Accessed 18 Jan. 2021.

Karen A. Mingst, Heather Elko McKibben, & Ivan M. Arreguín-Toft . Essentials of International Relations, 8th Edition, Norton, February 1st, 20019.


R. Jeffrey Smith, Heather Campbell . Srebrenica massacre : Bosnian history [1995],Britannica, July 07, 2010, https://www.britannica.com/event/Srebrenica-massacre. Accessed 19 Jan. 2021.


Amanda Onion, Missy Sullivan and Matt Mullen, A Timeline of US Led War on Terror, Histoty, A&E Television Networks, February 1,2019, https://www.history.com/topics/21st-century/war-on-terror-timeline. Accessed 18 Jan. 2021.

Paul Mathieu and Clinton R. Shiells, The Commonwealth of Independent States' Troubled Energy Sectors, Finance & Development : A quarterly magazine of the IMF, September 2002, Volume 39, Number 3, https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2002/09/mathieu.htm. Accessed 21 Jan. 2021.

Vinayak HV, Fraser Thompson, and Oliver Tonby,Understanding ASEAN: Seven things you need to know,McKinsey&Company,May 1, 2014, https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/public-and-social-sector/our-insights/understanding-ASEAN-seven-things-you-need-to-know. Accessed 22 Jan. 2021.

Frank Holmes, China's Belt and Road Initiative Opens Up Unprecedented Opportunities, Forbes, Sep 4, 2018 , https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2018/09/04/chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-opens-up-unprecedented-opportunities/?sh=45fbec6e3e9a. Accessed 22 Jan. 2021.

Greg Myre, Are U.S. And China Headed For A Cold War, npr : Morning Edition , Sep 9, 2019, https://www.npr.org/2019/09/09/747238523/are-the-u-s-and-china-headed-for-a-cold-war. Accessed 23 Jan. 2021.

Hunter Marston,The U.S.-China Cold War is a Myth ,FP News, Sep 6, 2019, https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/09/06/the-u-s-china-cold-war-is-a-myth/. Accessed 23 Jan. 2021.